Genetic counseling is a professional assessment of a person's or couple's risk factors, regarding their family history and/or a pregnancy. The goal of genetic counseling is not only risk assessment, but also to explain the cause and inheritance of a disorder, the availability of testing, the prognosis, medical management and treatment.
Genetic counseling sessions typically last one hour or longer, depending upon the complexity of the case. Genetic counseling can be provided by a geneticist, a physician with special training and Board Certification in genetics or by genetic counselors.
Genetic counselors have a minimum of a master's degree in genetic counseling or related field, which includes extensive training with human clinical genetics and counseling. The American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC) offers a certification examination for this discipline every three years.
The following lists reasons for when to seek a referral for genetic counseling and/or genetic evaluation with a genetic physician.
Family history factors l Pregnancy factors l Maternal factors l Other factors
Family history factors
- Mental retardation
- Neural tube defects (such as spina bifida)
- Chromosome abnormalities (such as Down syndrome)
- Cleft lip/palate
- Heart defects
- Short stature
- Single gene defects (such as cystic fibrosis or PKU)
- Hearing or visual impairments
- Learning disabilities
- Psychiatric disorders
- Multiple pregnancy losses (miscarriages, stillbirths or infant deaths)
- Either parent with an autosomal dominant disorder, or any disorder seen in several generations.
- Both parents are carriers of an autosomal recessive disorder, diagnosed either by the birth of an affected child or by carrier screening.
- Mother, known,or presumed to be a carrier of an X-linked disorder, such as hemophilia.
- Either parent is a known carrier of a balanced chromosome abnormality.
- Other disorders which could be considered genetic
- Maternal age is 35 years or greater at delivery.
- Maternal serum screening indicating an increased risk for neural tube defects, Down syndrome or trisomy 18.
- Abnormal prenatal diagnostic test results or abnormal prenatal ultrasound examination.
- Thyroid disorder
- Fetal or parental exposure to potentially teratogenic, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents, such as drugs, chemicals, radiation or infection.
- Father has an advanced age at the time of conception.
- If either parent is suspected of having a chromosome abnormality, contributing to infertility.
- Couples requiring assisted reproductive techniques to achieve a pregnancy, or individuals donating eggs or sperm for those purposes.
- Others in which birth defects may be associated either with the disease process or with common medications prescribed for the disease
- Persons in specific ethnic groups or geographic areas having a higher incidence of certain disorders, such as Tay-Sachs disease, sickle cell disease or thalassemias.
- Extreme parental concern or fear of having a child with a birth defect.
- Cases of consanguinity (parents are blood relatives) or incest where a pregnancy is involved.
- Premarital or preconception counseling couples at high risk for genetic disorders based on family or personal medical history.