A child’s doctor will perform an examination of the child when diagnosing or evaluating heart disease. This examination may include a head-to-toe assessment. A physical examination can help detect possible heart disease, or help him determine how well a child is coping with existing heart problems.
Some of the areas that may indicate a problem with a child’s heart health include the following, the:
The doctor will check the soft spot on the top of the infant’s head, known as the anterior fontanelle. The anterior fontanelle is felt throughout the first year of life. Normally, this soft spot is flat, soft and level with the rest of the scalp. The soft spot on the top of an infant’s head is examined to determine if there are dehydration problems.
The nostrils will be examined as the child breathes. Many congenital (present at birth) heart defects can stress the lungs, causing difficult breathing. The child’s doctor can evaluate the degree of difficulty by observing whether the child’s nostrils flare as he breathes. When the lungs are working hard, the nostrils may open up wide as a way to take in extra air.
Lip color is an important indicator of heart disease. Normally, the inside of the lips are a pink color. A blue or purple color indicates some degree of unoxygenated blood flowing through the arteries, or may indicate inadequate blood flow from heart failure, anemia or blood loss.
The jugular veins and the carotid arteries are located on either side of the neck. The jugular veins bring blood from the head back to the heart in order to receive a new supply of oxygen. The carotid arteries take oxygen-rich (red) blood back to the brain. Veins and arteries that are easily visible in the neck while a child is resting may be a sign of heart failure.
The child’s doctor will observe and feel the child’s chest as well as use a stethoscope to listen to the heart and lungs.
Difficult breathing can be caused by congenital heart defects. One of the problem signs that can be observed is retractions—a pulling inward of the skin between or below the ribs, or above or below the breastbone each time a child breathes.
The child’s doctor will listen carefully to the front and back of the child’s chest with a stethoscope. He will listen to the heart in several different areas of the chest for abnormal sounds such as murmurs, clicks, and irregular beats. Heart sounds can also be heard in the back. The heart rate will also be counted.
Abnormal sounds may be heard in the lungs when congenital or acquired heart disease is present. Fluid may accumulate in the lungs with some heart problems, and the child’s doctor will hear crackles, congestion or other moist or wet sounds. Both lungs should have sounds indicating good air flow through them. Breathing sounds that are not as clear or strong in one lung as in another will need further evaluation. The breathing rate also will be counted.
Many congenital or acquired heart problems can cause problems with the body’s water balance, leading to fluid retention and swelling. The liver is one of the organs that becomes swollen when the body’s water balance is abnormal. The child’s doctor will feel the right side of the abdomen to see if the liver can be palpated (felt), and, if so, evaluate swelling of the organ.
Arms and legs
The child’s doctor will feel the child’s arms and legs to find pulses. Pulses can be found in each arm on the inside of the wrist, in the bend of the elbow, and on the inner surface of the upper arm. In the legs, pulses can be found on each side of the groin, behind the knee, on the top surface of the foot and behind the inner ankle. Absent or overly strong pulses may indicate heart problems.
Skin temperature is also helpful in evaluating heart disease. When the heart is not pumping effectively, it will not be able to pump enough blood to meet the body’s demands. The body will narrow the blood vessels to nonessential areas such as the extremities in order to protect the brain and preserve blood flow. The skin becomes cool in areas where blood vessels have narrowed, usually starting in the fingers and toes first and then moving up the extremity as the situation worsens. The skin color may be pale.
Examination of the nailbeds also reveals important information about the heart. Normally, the nails are a pink color. Blue or purple nails indicate insufficient amounts of oxygen in the bloodstream, or inadequate amounts of blood in the circulation. Pale nailbeds may indicate anemia (low numbers of red blood cells in the bloodstream).
Children with cyanotic congenital heart disease, which allows unoxygenated blood to flow to the body, may develop a widening of the nailbeds called clubbing.
Other factors that may be considered during the examination include:
Growth and development status
Are the child’s height and weight as expected for his age? Is the child meeting development targets for his age, such as walking, talking, etc.?
Is the child active and busy, or does he tire easily? Do activities such as walking or playing cause shortness of breath?
The symptoms of heart disease may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Parents should always consult their child’s doctor for more information.